Learn all about Ancient Rome with this convenient Ancient Rome Timeline! From the founding of Rome upon a hill, to the Ides of March, and the murder of Julius Caesar, it’s all here. Whether you’re a student doing a report on Rome, a teacher looking for Roman History handouts for your class, or just a fan of Roman history, this timeline will provide you with the most important facts you need to know.
Roman Empire Timeline
- 753 BCE: Rome is founded. The city known as Rome was founded by Romulus along the Tiber River around the Palatine Hill.
- 509 BCE: Rome becomes a Republic.The Rule of the kings is overthrown establishing rule by Senate.
- 218 BCE: Hannibal Invades Italy.In a daring crossing of the Alps, Hannibal Barca enters Italy as part of the Second Punic War.
- 60 BCE: Julius Caesar forms the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.This political alliance rules Rome for several years.
- 50 BCE: Empire expands.Julius Caesar claims victory in the Gallic Wars pushing the west into Germany, France and Britain.
- 49 BCE: Crossing the Rubicon.Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon from Gaul into Italy marking the beginning of a Civil War that would last for four years.
- 45 BCE Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome. Julius Caesar emerges victorious and declares himself ruler of Rome.
- 44 BCE: Julius Caesar is assassinated. Julius Caesar is assassinated during the Roman holiday the Ides of March. His assassination would throw Rome into crisis and establish the reign of emperors.
- 27 CE: Rome is established as an Empire. Augustus, Julius Caesar’s adopted son, gives full power back to the Senate and becomes the emperor of Rome.
- 64 CE: Rome is burning.The Great fire of Rome burns for 9 days. While rumored to have started the fire, Nero blames it on Christians, which leads to their persecution.
- 79 CE: Mount Vesuvius Erupts. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys the city of Pompeii burying it in ash and lava.
- 80 CE: Colosseum is built.Emperor Titus completes the Colosseum and marks the event with 100 days of games.
- 122 CE: Hadrian Wall is built. Hadrian begins the construction of a 73-mile wall to keep the northern tribes of Britannia at bay.
- 166 CE: Rome in China.The first embassy arrives in China marking the official establishment of trade relations.
- 306 CE: Constantine becomes Emperor.Constantine comes to power at the death of his father, he would later end the persecution of Christianity.
- 380 CE: Christianity becomes official.Edict of Thessalonica declares Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
- 390 CE: City of Rome invaded.Brennus leads an army of Gauls to capture most of the city of Rome. Marking the first time the city has fallen to a foreign army.
- 395 CE: Rome Fractures.With the death of Theodosius. Legitimate heirs in both east and west cannot consolidate power, which splits the empire in two.
- 410 CE: Barbarians at the gates.The Visigoths sack the city of Rome. Marking the second time the city has fallen to a foreign army and ushers in the decline of the empire itself.
- 476 CE: Rome falls. Western Rome falls and brings with it the empire known as ancient Rome. However, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Byzantine Empire remains.
- 1054 CE: The Great Schism. No longer able to reconcile their difference, the Catholic Church in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Church it the east officially excommunicate each other.
- 1453 CE: The Byzantine Empire falls. No longer able to keep the Ottoman Empire at bay, the Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, modern day Istanbul.
ROMAN HISTORY TIMELINE. Accessed April 10, 2019. http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his101/web/t-roman.htm.
“Roman.” History Extra. Accessed April 10, 2019. https://www.historyextra.com/period/roman/.
“Roman Empire Timeline.” Math. Accessed April 10, 2019. http://www.softschools.com/timelines/roman_empire/timeline_9/.