Ancient Rome Timeline PDF – Learn the History of the Roman Empire

Learn all about Ancient Rome with this convenient Ancient Rome Timeline! From the founding of Rome upon a hill, to the Ides of March, and the murder of Julius Caesar, it’s all here. Whether you’re a student doing a report on Rome, a teacher looking for Roman History handouts for your class, or just a fan of Roman history, this timeline will provide you with the most important facts you need to know.

Ancient Rome Timeline PDF

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Ancient Rome Timeline PDF

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Roman Empire Timeline

  • 753 BCE: Rome is founded. The city known as Rome was founded by Romulus along the Tiber River around the Palatine Hill.
  • 509 BCE: Rome becomes a Republic.The Rule of the kings is overthrown establishing rule by Senate.
  • 218 BCE: Hannibal Invades Italy.In a daring crossing of the Alps, Hannibal Barca enters Italy as part of the Second Punic War.
  • 60 BCE: Julius Caesar forms the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.This political alliance rules Rome for several years.
  • 50 BCE: Empire expands.Julius Caesar claims victory in the Gallic Wars pushing the west into Germany, France and Britain.
  • 49 BCE: Crossing the Rubicon.Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon from Gaul into Italy marking the beginning of a Civil War that would last for four years.
  • 45 BCE Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome. Julius Caesar emerges victorious and declares himself ruler of Rome.
  • 44 BCE: Julius Caesar is assassinated. Julius Caesar is assassinated during the Roman holiday the Ides of March. His assassination would throw Rome into crisis and establish the reign of emperors.
  • 27 CE: Rome is established as an Empire. Augustus, Julius Caesar’s adopted son, gives full power back to the Senate and becomes the emperor of Rome.
  • 64 CE: Rome is burning.The Great fire of Rome burns for 9 days. While rumored to have started the fire, Nero blames it on Christians, which leads to their persecution.
  • 79 CE: Mount Vesuvius Erupts. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys the city of Pompeii burying it in ash and lava.
  • 80 CE: Colosseum is built.Emperor Titus completes the Colosseum and marks the event with 100 days of games.
  • 122 CE: Hadrian Wall is built. Hadrian begins the construction of a 73-mile wall to keep the northern tribes of Britannia at bay.
  • 166 CE: Rome in China.The first embassy arrives in China marking the official establishment of trade relations.
  • 306 CE: Constantine becomes Emperor.Constantine comes to power at the death of his father, he would later end the persecution of Christianity.
  • 380 CE: Christianity becomes official.Edict of Thessalonica declares Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
  • 390 CE: City of Rome invaded.Brennus leads an army of Gauls to capture most of the city of Rome. Marking the first time the city has fallen to a foreign army.
  • 395 CE: Rome Fractures.With the death of Theodosius. Legitimate heirs in both east and west cannot consolidate power, which splits the empire in two.
  • 410 CE: Barbarians at the gates.The Visigoths sack the city of Rome. Marking the second time the city has fallen to a foreign army and ushers in the decline of the empire itself.
  • 476 CE: Rome falls. Western Rome falls and brings with it the empire known as ancient Rome. However, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Byzantine Empire remains.
  • 1054 CE: The Great Schism. No longer able to reconcile their difference, the Catholic Church in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Church it the east officially excommunicate each other.
  • 1453 CE: The Byzantine Empire falls. No longer able to keep the Ottoman Empire at bay, the Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople, modern day Istanbul.


ROMAN HISTORY TIMELINE. Accessed April 10, 2019.

“Roman.” History Extra. Accessed April 10, 2019.

“Roman Empire Timeline.” Math. Accessed April 10, 2019.

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